Яагаад Хуралдай Тур-ыг сонгох ёстой вэ?
Бид “Хуралдай тур”-ынхан, Ази тивд орших Чингисийн хэмээн овоглогддог Монголын тал нутгийн түүх, соёл, нүүдэлчдийн амьдралыг аялагч та бүхнийг хүссэн мэдээлэлээр ханган зорисон чиглэлд аялуулна. Аялагч та нас хүйс, мэгрэжил, туршлага үл хамааран Монгол орныг сонирхон мэдэх аялах нэг хүсэлтэйгээр бидний тухай хуудсийг уншиж байгаа байх. Бидний гол зорилго, бусад аялалын компаниудаас ялгарахыг хүсч буй зүйл аялагч таны аялалын чиглэл болон аялалын багц бүртээ жирийн нэгэн малчин айлд хоноглох боломжийг олгон жинхэнэ Монголын малчин айлын хэв маяг, шашин шүтлэг, өдөр тутмын ажил, дадал заншил, эрхэмлэн дээдэлж явдаг эрхэм зүйлсийг хачир маяг, ур...

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About Mongolia

Mongolia is the largest representative of nomadic civilization lifestyle, situates in the chest of Central Asia. Mongolia’s history and culture began in the 2nd century BC from the Hunnu Empire. With its long history, it has been a country with great history to establish world’s many powerful countries and reigned United Nations. Mongolians are people who are proud of ancient queens, kings, lords, commanders and they like to talk about their histories. Indeed, honorable respected Modun Chanyu and Attila of Hunnu Empire, Genghis Khan and Khublai Khan of the Great Mongolian Empire are originated from this land and their names have spread throughout the world.

In the 16th century, the great Mongolians who ruled the half of the world in the 13th century were defeated by the Manchu emperors for the first time in their long history, for 200 years were in oppression of foreigners. In 1911 and 1921, could leave foreign oppression with aid of the Soviet Union and was able to be recognized as a sovereign state.

The independence of Republic of Mongolia was democratically revolutionized in 1990 and there was no turning back from democracy. Mongolia has been democratic country for the last 27 years.

Today Mongolia ranks 19th in the world by its area of 1 million 566 thousand km square, between the people’s republic of China and the Russian federation. Mongolians are well-known as a nomadic offspring in the world, with its nature and vast expanse and vast natural resources.

            When you visit Mongolia, you can take a trip to the beautiful Mongolian steppes to relax in the fabulous nature, familiarize yourself with the nomadic culture, listen to the history of Mongolians and leave unforgettable memories in your life.

                                    If you hear the history of Mongolians

                                    You will know the history of the world 

Nomadic culture

Nomadic culture has begun since human beings’ origination, and Mongolians maintain nomadic civilization and are still migrating. Nomads protect their nature and care their livestock and earn their living from it. Those who live along with their livestock can guess the climate from their natural environment and livestock behavior and they know everything in the 100 km radius of the place. The nomadic people have formed the world of the United Kingdom and have ruled the settled civilization and been as a mediator, but nowadays due to pastures, depletion and desertification, nomads have become more and more vulnerable to poverty, and have been hit by the wave of globalization and are being pushed to the settled civilization and industrial economies. Today, 0.5 percent of population which is 35 to 40 million nomads are still living in nomadic herding lifestyle. The people today are nomadic, including Australian aborigines, Bedie, Masayans, Pigmies, Tugrug, Mongolia, Tibetans, and Samites. 

            The nomadic civilization of Mongolia has the advantage of continuing tradition to live as a family, camp of Gers, neighbors, tribes and nations with transparent humanitarian successes, fiercely honest, hard work, ethics and customs from other civilizations. Today, Genghis Khan’s formula is getting more and more attention of researchers called “wisdom to worship the blue sky”. It includes the commandment to love and care the blue sky, the earth, the golden sun, the apple moon, the sacred mountains, the rivers, the springs, and the land of the earth which are possessed by god and spirits.

            The natural phenomenon of nomadic life is the main philosophy of wisdom to give and take, and asks for permission to please the spirit of nature when moves to new land and many rituals of prayer and consecration are a lot of customary practices, such as polluting rivers, leaving pole on the ground, removing rock from the hill or mountain, cutting the grass, cutting young trees.

Religion

Mongolians have worshipped shamanism from ancient times and have prayed in mountains, water and eternal blue sky, and respected other religions. Since the time of Genghis Khan, the religion has been freed and it is personal right of Mongolians to worship or not to worship any religion till today and it is on constitution, too. 

            Today, Mongolians are worshipping many religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Muslim and Shamanism. Most common out of it is Buddhism, but not many people still worship shamanism and continuing the rituals of shamanism.

Buddhism has been spread three times in Mongolia, and its latest epoch involves the period of foreign oppression between 19th and 20th century. During this period Mongolia was under oppression of Manchu rule, and the King of Manchu supported Tibetan Buddhism to be spread in every corner of Mongolia, and most of the Mongolians became masters of religion.

 

As this religion extends to Mongolia, many memorials, monasteries were built with eccentric yet interesting designs and some of them still can be seen with your own eyes.

            Shamanism is considered being non-religious because religion has its own sermon and scripture. There is no such thing as a scripture in shamanism, and shamanism is called non-religious. The ancient people understood that “spirits of the dead reign the world”. Therefore, they have assumed various rituals to treat them.  The ancient people describe the implications of their influence as good or bad spirits and creating many rituals to promote the good and to remove the bad. In other words, the form of worship that existed before the creation of the world religions was considered shaman. 

Shamanism is traditionally practiced in the mind of Mongolians. Since the tribes were in the union before shifting to class system in the 3rd century BCE, shamanism was long-standing worship of ancient Stone Age. In other words, the original form of worship that worships the spirit of ancestors, the heavens, and the earth.

The ancient Mongolians believed that a special master of heaven was hiding behind nature, the world, humans and animals, who takes the care of them. This concept is the foundation of the Shamanism. This concept is the foundation of the shamanism principle.

Mongolian Game

Mongolians are smart people who have developed a variety of games from ancient times to develop their children’s skills, intelligence, speech and thinking skills. Mongolian national games have a variety of knucklebone games, board games, puzzles, verbal games, folding cutting games, games on ice and archery, wrestling and horse racing.

Knucklebone game is played with a variety of knucklebone of small cattle such as horse racing, arranging multicolored frog, tossing 4 types of knucklebone, grabbing knucklebone, flicking knucklebone and so on. The reason knucklebone is so respected is that it symbolizes the livestock, so it is prohibited to throw it into the garbage and leave it on the base of Ger.

In addition to playing board games like well-known chess and checker, there are Panjig, Ger board game, Buudal /station/, Enkhjargal /happiness/, Ulzii /luck/, Dugui /wheel/, 4 bulls and many more.

Puzzle game develops a child’s imagination more and there are other types of games such as wooden puzzle, Mongolian lock, subtle maze, and knucklebone puzzle.

Puzzle is originated from nomadic civilization. Our ancestors used to easily break up and assemble all our homes, fixtures, fences and yarns so that they could adjust and move in anytime during the four seasons. It has developed into the foundation of puzzle game. There are puzzles in Mongolian Ger, bed, table, and shelves and even in Airag’s piston. Our people have used games and puzzles to develop creative techniques, creative thinking and creativity and so it has created a whole-of-the-ordinary traditional culture that has been used in various disciplines for good upbringing.

 

National Food

Since Mongolians have been migrating, their food was mostly dairy and meat of livestock which was produced in variety of ways. Also used wild animals, wild vegetable, beans, seeds, crop plants, fruits, savor sweets as side dishes. Mongolians prepare their meat supply in a cold season, when livestock are well-fed, and it’s called Idesh /winter meat supply/. During the winter, meat is often eaten, and during the summer, fermented milk and yogurt are served.

 

Some of the Mongolian national dishes include:           

            Borts /dried meat/: Borts are the main food of nomadic Mongolians and the most suitable food for those who migrate. Borts are dried meat that can be preserved for long periods of time and cannot be decayed or lose their quality and the nutrition and juice are preserved in it and its unique food of Mongolian nationals of hundreds of years. Borts is light weighted and can be eaten during four seasons of year and its best suited for long trips. Also there is rumor that this unique food was the main food of the Mongolians during wars.  

            Boodog/Mongolian Barbeque cooked inside itself/: Boodogs are usually made from goat and marmot meat. Take the bones out of the meat from the Boodog meat, so they leave the meat in the skin. To cook it fast, cut the meat that was in the bone into thinner pieces. After the skin removed in whole with no cut from body, close well the open part with layers of filled cut meats and hot stones. Close the mouth well and fry from outside to cook. Because for boodog pots or pans were not used for cooking, boodog was commonly used during wars and ancient Mongolians have eaten this fast tasty dish during wars.

            Khorkhog/Mongolian barbeque cooked in a pot/: Khorkhog is usually done on a picnic and put shredded fresh meat in a pot with little bit of water and add heated stone. After layering meat and stone, close the lid well to cook. Hot stones and soup are the magic of human fatigue.

The cooking method of Khorkhog and boodog are similar, so can be considered being modern form of boodog. The reason it’s considered being a modern form of boodog is that khorkhog is cooked in a pot by layers of meat and hot stones instead of livestock skin.

 

Dairy

Mongolians have traditionally used their livestock milk as a variety of food products such as Urum /creamed formed on boiled milk/, dried curds, curds, yogurt, Airag /fermented horse milk/, Eezgii /oyster cheese/, cheese and so on. Dairy products are rich in calcium and good for children`s growth and dry curds increase the dental strength and tooth decay. So, Mongolians have been widely using them in their diet. According to the folks, Mongolians widely used dried curd and eezgii so they were able to prevent tooth decays. During the summer time, people traditionally have eaten yogurt and airag instead of meat dishes to detox their body that have eaten meat during the winter.